Liver diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality among persons living with HIV.
Hepatitis C does not always require treatment as the immune response in some people will clear the infection, and some people with chronic infection do not develop liver damage.
Periodically updating the evidence base and guideline recommendations is essential in order to maintain their validity and authority.
The Department of Health commissioned a review of new evidence and we have updated the evidence base for making infection prevention and control recommendations.
A critical assessment of the updated evidence indicated that the epic2 guidelines published in 2007 remain robust, relevant and appropriate, but some guideline recommendations required adjustments to enhance clarity and a number of new recommendations were required. In addition, the synopses of evidence underpinning the guideline recommendations have been updated.
These guidelines (epic3) provide comprehensive recommendations for preventing HCAI in hospital and other acute care settings based on the best currently available evidence.
In addition, these people should have a laboratory test to identify the genotype of the hepatitis C strain.
There are 6 genotypes of the HCV and they respond differently to treatment.
About 15–45% of infected persons spontaneously clear the virus within 6 months of infection without any treatment. The most affected regions are WHO Eastern Mediterranean and European Regions, with the prevalence of 2.3% and 1.5% respectively.National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England were originally commissioned by the Department of Health and developed during 1998–2000 by a nurse-led multi-professional team of researchers and specialist clinicians.Following extensive consultation, they were first published in January 2001 A cardinal feature of evidence-based guidelines is that they are subject to timely review in order that new research evidence and technological advances can be identified, appraised and, if shown to be effective for the prevention of HCAI, incorporated into amended guidelines.Following initial infection, approximately 80% of people do not exhibit any symptoms.Those who are acutely symptomatic may exhibit fever, fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, grey-coloured faeces, joint pain and jaundice (yellowing of skin and the whites of the eyes).